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Basic Citations and References
by Dr. Brian Campbell

Introduction

When writing your post, journal review, or book review, it is extremely important to provide proper credit and recognition for ideas that you obtained from other sources.  The American Psychological Association Publication Manual (2010) states it this way:  “Cite the work of those individuals whose ideas, theories, or research have directly influenced your work” (p. 169).  The proper format for crediting the work of others is covered in the APA manual in “Chapter 6: Crediting Sources” (pp. 169-192).

Cite your references in two places:  1. In the body, of your paper/post, and 2. In the reference list at the end of your paper/post.  The reference list at the bottom of your document provides information to the reader regarding where he/she can find the source you are directly quoting or paraphrasing, or drawing upon in the body of your paper.  Every citation in the body of your text should have a corresponding reference in the “Reference” section at the end of your post/text.

Unfortunately, the rules for providing properly formatted citations and references are complex.  In the following document, examples for actual sources used in this course are provided, together with general information on providing citations.

By the way, please note how I have cited the APA Manual in the first paragraph above.  Before moving on, here is how you would cite the APA Manual in the reference section of your paper/post: 

References

American Psychological Association. (2010). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th ed.  Washington: American Psychological Association.

 

Citing Sources Related to Coun: 506:  Integration of Spirituality and Counseling

We will start by providing information regarding how to give proper credit to the ideas, theories, and research that form part of your course.  These sources include:  PowerPoint presentations, videos, journal articles, and textbooks.  For the lectures/presentations, a rough transcript of the video lectures has also been provided. 

Video Presentations/Lectures With Transcript:

Brewers and Peters (n.d.) produced the content of the lectures/presentations in this course.  Dr. Clay Peters produced the audio voice over.  Campbell (n.d.) also produced videos and website content for this course.  Here are some examples of how you would properly cite these sources in the body of your paper.

 

Brewer and Peters (n.d., “Integration of Psychology”) claim, “Christians have led the way in what is now considered the science and professional practice of counseling” (para. 1).

Here is what the above in-text citation would look like in “References” section at the bottom of your post/paper:

Reference

Brewer, G., & Peters, C. (n.d.).  “Integration of psychology and Christianity:  Why bother?”  Coun: 506: Integration of Spirituality and Counseling, Liberty University.  

Video Presentations/Lectures With a Secondary Source:

The video presentations (as well as the transcripts of the video presentations) contain information from other sources, but these sources are not cited.  These so-called “secondary sources” can be properly cited in the body of your paper/post by using the following format.

According to Carter and Narramore, “All truth is God’s truth” (as cited in Brewer & Peters, (n.d.), “Integration of Psychology,” (para. 2)).

According to Carter and Narramore, “All truth is God’s truth” (as cited in Brewer & Peters (n.d.), “Integration of Psychology”). 

          Note: The second version above shows the format if you cannot discern the paragraph number for the direct quote.

Website Video Presentation Without a Transcript:

In his presentation entitled, “Take Captive Every Thought,” Campbell (n.d.) argues that our role as Christian counselors is to bring people to a knowledge of the truth.

Campbell (n.d., “Take Captive Every Thought”) argues that the role of Christian counselors is to bring individuals to a knowledge of the truth.

Reference

Campbell (n.d.).  Take Captive Every Thought [Video file].  Retrieved from:
 
http://counseling4christians.com/Videos/IntegrationCCBT.html

 

Citing Textbooks in Coun: 506 “Integration of Spirituality and Counseling

Hawkins’ and Clinton’s Textbook: In-Text Example:

According to Hawkins and Clinton (2015), “Christian redemption entails the formation and transformation of character so that we may be more Christ-like” (p. 4).

For Christians, the process of redemption involves becoming more Christ-like (Hawkins & Clinton, 2015, p. 4).

Reference

Hawkins, R., & Clinton, T. (2015). The new Christian counselor: A fresh biblical and transformational approach. Eugene, OR: Harvest House Publishers. ISBN: 9780736943543.

 

McMinn Textbook: In-Text Example:

McMinn (2011) argues that "you cannot get a degree in spirituality" (p. 11).

Reference

McMinn, M. R. (2011).  Psychology, theology, and spirituality in Christian counseling.  (2nd Ed) Wheaton, IL: Tyndale.

 

Additional Examples Of Citations and References:

(One Work, One Author)

  • In one of the most important articles on plagiarism (Campbell, 2010), students learned…
  • In an article on plagiarism by Campbell (2010), students learned…

·         In 2010, Campbell’s article on plagiarism helped students learn… 

Citing Sources Involving Direct Quotations

·         According to Campbell (2010), “You should avoid plagiarism” (p. 42).

·         Campbell (2010) stated: “You should avoid plagiarism” (p. 42).

·         “You should avoid plagiarism” (Campbell, 2010, p. 42).

 

Citing Web Articles in the Body of the Paper

Example: Direct quote:

According to “What is Plagiarism” (n.d.), “Plagiarism is an act of fraud.  It involves both stealing someone else's work and lying about it afterward” (para. 3).

Example: No direct quote:

“What is Plagiarism” (n.d.) gives many different examples of what it means to plagiarize.  For example, you would be plagiarizing if you copy someone else’s words without giving proper credit (para. 5).

Website Citation in the Reference Section of Your Paper:

What is Plagiarism? (n.d.). Retrieved from PlagiarsmdotOrg: http://www.plagiarism.org/plag_article_what_is_plagiarism.html

References Involving Journal Articles

Manore, M. M., Kam, L. C., & Loucks, A. B. (2007).  The female athlete triad: Components, nutrition issues, and health consequences. Journal of Sports Sciences, 25, 61-71.

References Involving Books

Calfee, R. C., & Valencia, R. R.  APA guide to preparing manuscripts for journal publication. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

See also:  Sample References:  This paper by Charbot College is one of the best summaries of APA style I have ever seen.  Make sure you print it out and keep it for future reference.