Integration Course

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Developing Your Summary of Tan’s Article
Brian Campbell, 2017

Videos:  Part I: Summarizing Tan’s Article     Part II:  Summarizing Tan’s Article

Read the General Instructions from Blackboard

“Develop a summary (40 points) of the main concepts from the article.  Do not duplicate the article’s abstract.  If the article describes a research study, include brief statements about the hypotheses, methods, results, discussion, and implications.  If any test measures or statistical methods used are given in the article, do not provide detailed descriptions of these.  Short direct quotations from the article are acceptable, but avoid long quotes in a paper this size.  This section is the foundation of your Journal Article Review (at least a third of your paper).  Make sure you include the core points from the article, even if it means a longer section.  Do not reference any additional articles in your summary.”

Note:  This is a Summary and not a Critique.  You must stick to summarizing Tan’s article, rather than critically evaluating his work, providing commentary, etc.  Do not provide personal comments such as:  “I really liked this article because…” or, “In my opinion…”

Citations:  Virtually every sentence you write will be based on something the author has written (the specific words) or his ideas.  Please review the following document:  Citations and Reference for Tan’s Article.  Also, please review:  How to Paraphrase and Avoid Plagiarism.

The Process of Developing a Summary

Print out the article.

Do a brief overview of the article.

What is the title of the article:  Use of Prayer and Scripture in Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy.”

Where was it published?  Journal of Psychology and Christianity (a reputable journal).

When was it published?  2007 The article is nearly 10 years old.

How long is the article?  11 pages

Who wrote the article?  Siang-Yang Tan  

What are the author’s credentials?  From the bottom of the page, we see that Dr. Tang has a Ph.D. and he is a Professor of Psychology in the Graduate School of Psychology, at Fuller Theological Seminary.  At the very end of the paper, we read that Dr. Tan is also a senior pastor at an evangelical church.

Obtain additional information on the author.  I looked Dr. Tan up on the internet and found he is a licensed psychologist.


Look Over the Abstract

What does the abstract tell me about the article?  The abstract is a brief description of what the author feels represents the main content of the article.

“This article covers the appropriate and ethical use of prayer including inner healing prayer, and Scripture in a Christian approach to cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), Expanded CBT now includes Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy, Acceptance and Commitment Therapy, and Dialectical Behavior Therapy, Implicit and explicit integration in therapy are briefly described, A composite clinical case example is included to illustrate how prayer and Scripture can be explicitly used in Christian CBT.  Results of outcome studies on the efficacy of religiously-oriented CBT are also briefly mentioned.”


·         Focuses on how to combine/integrate prayer and scripture with traditional “cognitive-behavioral therapy.”

·         Talks about how the integration can be ethically accomplished.

·         A case study is used to show how to explicitly integrate prayer and scripture in cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT)

·         Author presents research from others to support the religiously-based CBT

Look Over the Major Headings Included in the Article

Glance through the major headings in the article to get a better idea of how the document is organized and what it is about:

A Biblical, Christian Approach to CBT

Implicit and Explicit Integration in Therapy

Assessment (Pre-Intervention)

            Prayer and Inner Healing Prayer

            Use of Scripture

Concluding Comment


Looking over the reference list, we can see that the author cites many different research articles.  The author (Tan) cites around 10 articles he has published, many of which deal with the integration of spiritual disciplines and psychology.

What did we learn thus far?

·         The article was written by someone who is a professor, a licensed psychologist, and an evangelical pastor.

·         It is not a research article.  No scientific experimentation was conducted.




Read the Article & Take Notes


After reading each section, put the article away and make some “bottom line” statements. 


            --Put these statements in your own words. 

            --Carefully include page numbers on which information is obtained. 

            --Use quotation marks for direct quotations.



·         Author establishes that CBT is an effective therapy and gives some history of how the treatment modality has changed over time (p. 101)

·         Religiously based CBT has begun to emerge “in recent years.”  (p. 101)

·         Cites scientific research (10 outcome studies) that supports the use of religious-based CBT and the treatment of different clinical disorders.  (p. 101)


A Biblical, Christian Approach to CBT

·         Author describes the Christian CBT that he developed over 25 years of practice.  (p. 102)

·         Describes 8 key features of his approach to integrating Christian disciplines with CBT (p. 102)

·         Spiritual/mystical elements in counseling should be considered.  “Pay special attention to the meaning of spiritual, experiential, and even mystical aspects of life and faith”  (p. 102)

·         The  possible influence of the devil in the lives of his clients and the disorders should be considered (p. 102)

·         Use biblical truths to correct the problematic thinking and behavior of clients.  (p. 102)

·         Emphasizes the importance of the Holy Spirit for bringing about lasting change in clients (p. 102)

·         In a broader context, utilize the church as a supplemental resource to help clients.  (p. 102)

·         Only use treatment techniques that do not contradict biblical truths.  “consistent with biblical truth” (p. 103)

·         Ultimate goal of counseling is to help clients more holy and Christ-like.  (p. 102)

·         Make sure your methods are supported by scientific research before reporting them.  (p. 102)


Implicit and Explicit Integration in Therapy


·         Implicit integration of religion into counseling is a “covert” approach (Tan, 1996, as cited in Tan 2007).  The counselor “does not initiate the discussion of religious or spiritual issues and does not openly, directly or systematically use spiritual resources” (Tan, 1996, as cited in Tan, 2007).

·         Explicit integration: More “overt” use of religious disciplines—prayer and scripture.  (Tan, 1996, as cited in Tan 2007)

·         Explicit integration is used when a client wants the counselor to utilize a Christian approach to counseling and who gives permission (informed consent) to utilize prayer and scripture.  (p. 103)

·         Intentional integration: “key to professional practice” (Tan, 1996, as cited in Tan 2007)

·         Intentional integration: relying on the Holy Spirit to guide therapy using explicit and/or implicit integration  “in a professionally competent , ethically responsible and clinically sensitive way for the benefit and growth of the client” (Tan, 1996, as cited in Tan 2007)

·         Tan reports he has used explicit Christian CBT to successfully treat many different kinds of client problems.  (p. 103)

·         Tan suggests that he has been successful using CCBT with people from different cultures and backgrounds. (p. 103)


Assessment (Pre-Intervention)


·         Tan describes the assessment process he uses when considering whether or not to incorporate religion into his counseling.  (p. 103)

·         Counselor conducts and extensive interview with client to determine whether or not to use prayer and scripture in counseling (p. 103)

·         Integrating religion into counseling is not appropriate for all clients.  (p. 103)

·         Even when the client is appropriate for Christian approach, prayer and scripture are not necessarily used in every session.  (p. 103)

·         Inner healing prayer: a treatment technique Tan developed to help clients heal from painful memories of the past.  (p. 104)

·         Used for “clients with painful past memories that still affect them in negative and adverse ways” (p. 105)

·         Gives 7 steps of inner healing prayer.  (p. 104)

·         Prays with client first for protection from evil.  (p. 104)

·         Client gets relaxed with breathing techniques; asked to vividly recall memories of traumatic event and recall emotions that were experienced (p. 104)

·         Call upon the Holy Spirit to minister and bring healing and comfort (p. 104)

·         Use image of Jesus and/or targeted scriptures to bring healing

·         Debriefing and homework.  (p. 104)

·         Inner healing prayer (and Scripture): may not be appropriate for severely disturbed/psychotic clients, or people who are in active rebellion/angry towards God.  (p. 104)

·         Certain settings and locations limit the use of inner healing prayer or the incorporation of prayer and/or scripture into the counseling setting.  (p. 104)


                        Prayer and Inner Healing Prayer

·         Prayer is basically communicating with God.  (p. 104) and there are different ways to pray.  (p. 104)

·         Different types of prayer can be integrated into counseling:  intercessory, contemplative, inner healing prayer, listening prayer, praying before session starts, or at end of session.  (p. 104)

·         Different “aspects or dimensions” of prayer: “petition for oneself, intercession for others, confession, thanksgiving, and praise or worship of God” (pp. 104-105)

·         Scripture supports that prayer can be an effective means of healing.  (p. 105).

·         Author provides a composite case study to demonstrate inner healing prayer.  (p. 105)

·         Inner healing prayer is not for everyone and it is not a “cure” for all problems.  (p. 107)

·         Inner healing prayer is similar to more recent treatments approaches such as mindfulness.  (p. 107)

·         Some support for this technique—from the literature supporting mindfulness. (p. 107)


            Use of Scripture


·         Scripture is the second major form of intervention in Christian CBT.  (p. 108)

·         Scripture can be used to correct irrational thinking.

·         “Oftentimes, unbiblical, erroneous, even sinful thinking needs to be dealt with in therapy, in a compassionate and sensitive way, with proper interpretation of scripture” (p. 108).

·         Author provides references to sources that support the above statement.  (p. 108).

·         Although Scripture can be helpful in correcting thinking, its use can be “risky and potentially harmful” (p. 108).

·         According to Monroe (2007, as cited in Tan, 2007), you need to ask yourself the purpose or goal of using scripture, what you hope to accomplish, what might block your goals, and how might the client misinterpret the use of scriptures (p. 108).

·         Author points out that Scripture (inspired word of God) can be used in a number of different ways to accomplish different purposes…including:  “comfort, clarify (guide), correct (cognitively restructure) and cure (or heal)” (p. 108).

·         Scriptures can be used directly or indirectly…specifically citing verses, having the client read scriptures, meditating on scriptures, memorizing, listing to scriptures read, studying scripture (Tan and Gregg, 1977, as cited in Tan, 2007), assigning clients to read, study, memorize, or meditate upon (p. 108).

·         When incorporating scripture, some key questions:

            What are you basing these thoughts on?

            Where is the evidence for your conclusion?

            Is there another way of looking at this?

            What does God have to say about this?

            What do you think the Bible has to say about this?

            What does your church have to say about this?


Concluding Comment

·         “Prayer and Scripture can be therefore be ethically and effectively used in Christian CBT” (p. 110).



Plan the “Flow” of Your Summary


As background to this section, please read:  Meet the Paragraph


An Introductory Paragraph

·         Tan (2007) argues that religion can be successfully integrated into counseling


·         More specifically, shows how you can integrate Christianity into traditional cognitive-behavioral therapy


·         Begins by emphasizing the general scientific evidence to support cognitive-behavioral therapy


·         Next, shows the emerging support for the integration of religion into traditional CBT (i.e., the increasing scientific support for Christian CBT)


 A Paragraph on Support for Christian CBT based on Tan’s Clinical Experience and Practice


·         In addition to empirically based research, Tan (2007) also bases his support for integration on his clinical experience over 25 years as a licensed psychologist, where he used Christian CBT to successfully treat patients with a wide variety of psychological problems or disorders


·         Despite his advocacy for Christian CBT, he does not believe that the integration of religion into counseling is appropriate for everyone or for all types of problems.


A Paragraph on the Process of Assessment of Appropriateness of Integration for a Particular Client


·         During the course of his career, he developed techniques and procedures for assessing clients to determine if the integration of Christian disciplines would be appropriate in a particular case


·         If it is determined that the integration of religion into counseling is appropriate, he stresses the importance of formally getting the client’s consent to utilize Christian disciplines in counseling


·         If the client gives consent, and if general background and other factors are appropriate for Christian CBT, then the integration process can be explicit. 


·         Explicit integration involves openly/overtly integrating Christian disciplines into counseling.  Otherwise, integration would be implicit.  The choice of implicit or explicit integration would be based on an assessment of the client’s needs or problems and the therapist’s training and background.  (p. 102)


·         If it is decided that explicit integration is appropriate, and if appropriate consent has been obtained, then the two main types of Christian disciplines can be introduced into counseling: prayer, and Scripture


A Paragraph on “Prayer”


·         There are many different types and forms of prayer that the counselor can utilize, such as…


·         In addition, Tan describes a form of prayer he labels as “inner healing prayer” that he developed for use in his clinical practice.  (p. 104).


·         He describes 7 important features of inner healing prayer, including:   for example:


·         He utilizes a composite case study to show how he utilizes prayer (including “inner healing prayer” in his counseling practice.  (pp. 105-108)


·         In addition to prayer, the counselor can also explicitly incorporate Scripture into counseling.


A Paragraph on Scripture


·         The integration of Scripture can take a variety of forms, and can be used for different purposes


·         Scriptures can be used directly, indirectly, etc.


·         As was the case with the integration prayer, the integration of Scripture is not for everyone and there are a number of potential problems


A Concluding Paragraph


·         Based on emerging scientific research and Dr. Tan’s (2007) 25 years of clinical experience using Christian CBT, the author concludes that the Christian disciplines of prayer and Scripture can be effectively and ethically incorporated into counseling.  The integration can be explicit (openly/overt) provided an appropriate assessment has been conducted and the counselor’s training and experience in the Christian faith are taken into consideration.