Citations and Reference for Tan's Article

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Citations and Reference for Tan’s Article
Brian Campbell, 2016

Below, please find examples of citations for Tan’s (2007) article on the use of prayer and scripture in cognitive-behavioral therapy.  The reference for this article is given on a separate page at the bottom of this document. 

Remember, you must provide an in-text citation for:

  • summarized information
  • direct quotes
  • paraphrased information

In the Summary section of your journal article review, virtually every sentence will require an in-text citation.  There are exceptions.  Please review:  Citations Within a Paragraph.

In-Text Citations

·         Summarized Information:


Tan (2007) gives an overview of how to integrate Scripture and prayer into traditional cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT).


The author (Tan, 2007) has provided an overview of ways that Scripture and prayer can be integrated into traditional cognitive-behavioral therapy.


·         Direct Quotes:

According to Tan (2007), a Christian approach to CBT “does not mean using prayer and Scripture in every session” (p. 103). 

However, prayer and Scripture should not be used with Christians “who are in active rebellion against God or who are so angry at God at the moment that they are not interested in pursuing any explicit spiritual interventions” (Tan, 2007, p. 104).

Note:  Please use direct quotations sparingly, and avoid long quotations.  Too many direct quotes weaken your paper.  Try to paraphrase instead. 

·         Paraphrased Information:

Here is the original:

“Prayer and Scripture can therefore be ethically and effectively used in Christian CBT, especially when explicit integration in the therapy room is appropriate, with clients who have given informed consent for such an approach to be taken.  Christian therapists can practice Christian CBT in this Christ-centered, biblically-based, and Spirit-filled way” (Tan, 2007, p. 110).


            Here is the paraphrase:

Tan (2007) argues that if the Christian counselor obtains proper consent from the client, explicitly combining prayer and Scripture with cognitive-behavioral therapy is both ethical and efficacious (p. 110).  Bottom line, his article provides justification for praying with clients and using the truths of the bible when counseling (p. 110).

Note:  APA recommends providing a page number for closely paraphrased information.
Note:  Once you have clearly established the source in a paragraph, you can simply provide the page number for your paraphrased material, (without repeating the “Author” and “Year”). 






Tan, S. (2007).  Use of prayer and scripture in cognitive-behavioral therapy.  Journal of

                   Psychology & Christianity, 26(2), 101-111.