Integration Course

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Basic Citations and References
by Dr. Brian Campbell, 2017


When writing your post, journal review, or book review, it is extremely important to provide proper credit and recognition for ideas that you obtained from other sources.  The American Psychological Association Publication Manual (2010) states it this way:  “Cite the work of those individuals whose ideas, theories, or research have directly influenced your work” (p. 169).  The proper format for crediting the work of others is covered in the APA manual in “Chapter 6: Crediting Sources” (pp. 169-192).

Cite your references in two places:  1. In the body, of your paper/post, and 2. In the reference list at the end of your paper/post.  The reference list at the bottom of your document provides information to the reader regarding where he/she can find the source you are directly quoting or paraphrasing, or drawing upon in the body of your paper.  Every citation in the body of your text should have a corresponding reference in the “Reference” section at the end of your post/text.

Unfortunately, the rules for providing properly formatted citations and references are complex.  In the following document, examples for actual sources used in this course are provided, together with general information on providing citations.

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