Theology and Spirituality Course

Downloads:  MS Word

Abstract .

The abstract will normally be one of the last sections of your paper that you write.

[For information on how to prepare your abstract, refer to your APA Publication Manual, 6e, pp. 25-27.]  

  1. The abstract should summarize the most important elements of your paper.
  2. Do not add new information or new conclusions in your abstract.
  3. Start your abstract on a new page (following the Title Page).
  4. Center the word “Abstract” (just as in the example above)
  5. The word “Abstract” should be capitalized and in regular font (no bold, formatting, italics, underlining, or quotation marks).
  6. Type the abstract as a single paragraph, without paragraph indentation.  
  7. The abstract is meant to be read independently of your paper.  It should provide a concise/brief summation of your paper.
  8. Try to tell the reader the key/essential elements of your theory.
  9. Keep the topics of your paper in mind as you summarize your personal theory (i.e., CCBT): Personality; Motivation; Human Development; Individual Differences; Mental Health; Mental Illness; Psychological and Spiritual Illness; Integrating and Multitasking; Intervention; Anticipated Effectiveness; Worldview.  Change the order around a little if you need to.  You do not have to cover all the topics; you will not have room in your condensed summary.
  10. Your abstract should be one paragraph and should be between 150-250 words.
  11. All numbers in the abstract, except those beginning a sentence, should be typed as digits rather than words.
  12. To count the number of words in this paragraph, select the paragraph (by highlighting it with your cursor) and the number of words in the paragraph appears in the lower left of the work space on the status bar.  If you do not see the word count, right click on the status bar and then make sure “Word Count” is enabled. 


APA Manuscript Highlights on Abstracts (APA Manual, 2012, pp. 25-27)


Ø  Write in clear concise language.

Ø  Use verbs, rather than their noun equivalents.

Ø  Use active rather than passive voice.

Ø  Use present tense to describe conclusions drawn or results with continuing applicability.

Ø  Use past tense to describe particular variables manipulated or outcomes measured.

Ø  Be brief.

Ø  Make each sentence maximally informative, especially the lead sentence.

Ø  Begin with the most important point.

Ø  Include only 4-5 of the most important concepts, findings, or implications




Outline Your Abstract

I will get you started:

  • CCBT focuses on irrational beliefs as the underlying cause of mental illness and the focus of treatment.

  • CCBT is an extension of traditional CBT that incorporates Christian “Truths” and matters of faith when attempting to confront and alter irrational beliefs

  • Sources of irrational beliefs: parents; media, the devil…

  • Beliefs affect thinking, behavior, emotions, perception, self-talk, and eternal salvation

  • Process of intervention: 

    • Identify

    • Challenge

      • Scriptures

      • Refutations

      • Questioning

      • Behavior “experiments”

    • Replace

      • Sources of Truth

        • Unique Christian Perspective

        • Bible

        • Holy Spirit

  • Intervention Techniques

  • Maintenance

  • Anticipated Effectiveness

Note:  You may find that you need to condense parts of the above outline when constructing your Abstract.